«Milk — is the most useful for our Health » Ғылыми жоба

16 ақпан 2016 - Bibigul Sabitaeva

         Кіші Ғылым Академиясы Маңғыстау облысы Ақтау қаласы

 

 

School:№11

Scientific author of work: Nurkhozha Nurai and    Izturganova Aktolkin

Class: 7 «Ә»

Theme: «Milk — is the most useful for our Health »

Section: English

Scientific leaders of work:   Sabitaeva Bibigul  and

                                      Sandybaeva Sagira  

                                     Teachers of English;  School 11

                                      City Zhanaozen;  village Tenge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                      Aktau 2014-2015

Milk –is the most useful of our Health

                                  Plan:

              I.   Introduction

1.1.  Milk

1.2.  Why the Milk is a useful  of our Health?

1.3.   Mother’s milk and animals Milk.

 II. Stages of investigation.

2.1. Milk is a useful or danger

 2.2. Milk products in our Country

 2.3.  Which animals milk is an important for children?

                  III. The Purpose of investigation.

3.4. Goat’s milk

3.5. Camel’s milk

3.6. Horse milk

3.7.  Cow’s milk

3.8.  Donkey’s milk

III. Conclusion.

 4.2. To know about the milk is an important for unhealthy people.

 4.3. Our town’s Milk Factory is the best factory in our Country.

IV. List of Literatures, that was used.

V. My suggestion.

VI. Teacher’s opinion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                             1

 

                                 Абстракт

     

 Сүт — барлық жастағы адамдарүшін жұғымдылығы жоғары, оңай сіңетін өнім. 100 грамм сүтте 3 грамға жуық белок, көптеген мөлшерде оңай сіңірілген кальций мен фосфор қосындылары, сондай-ақ белгілі мөлшерде А1, В2, Д дәрумендері бар. 100 грамм сүтағзаға 60-қа жуық килокалориябереді екен. Сүттің пайдасы шаш етектен.

Адамзат баласы дүниеге келген кезде әуелі ана сүтін қорек етеді. Ана сүті өмірге келген жас сәбидің дамып, өсуіне ықпал етеді. Себебі, оның құрамында балаға қажетті элементтер бар.

Жас сәбиге сүт қаншалықты қажет болса, үлкен адамдарға да соншалықты қажет. Сүт құрамындағы ақуыз тырнақ, шаш өсімін жақсартып, сүйектердің қатайып, мықты болуына әсер етеді.Күнделікті майлылығы төмен сүт өнімдерін пайдалану ас қорыту жүйесін жақсартады.

 Сүт деген тақырыпты таңдағанымыздың себебіде осы мәліметтерді білу біздің мақсатымыз.

Сүт те бар элементтер айранда да бар. Сондай-ақ, айранда ағзадағы зат алмасу жүйесін жылдамдатады. Артық салмақтан арылуды көздейтін жандар күніне 1 стакан айран ішсе, діттеген мақсатына жете алады.Әсіресе, айранды кешкі уақытта ішкен пайдалы.

Қазақтың ұлттық сусындарының (айран, қымыз, сүт, шұбат) адам денсаулығына тигізетін пайдасы орасан зор. Бабаларымыз қадірлеген жылқы малының сүті – қымыздың емдік қасиеті бар екендігі ежелден мәлім. Дені сауадамның ағзасы бір тәулікте орта есеппен 50 мг С дәруменін қажет етсе, бір литр қымыз құрамында 200-260 мг С дәрумені бар екен. Қымызда сонымен қатар сөл бөлу және жүрек жұмысын жақсартатын Втобындағы В(1), В(2), В(3), оныңішінде қанның жасалуына қатысатын В12 дәрумені және ағзадағы тотығу-тотықсыздану реакцияларына әсер ететін С тобы дәрумендері, сондай-ақ, А тобы дәрумендері кездеседі.

Шіріткіш микробтарға, ішек таяқшаларына және сарғыш стафилококтарға қарсы жойғыш күші бар қымыз – туберкулез, сүзек, дизентерияға, дифтерия бактерияларына тосқауыл қояды. «Ауруға – ем, сауға – қуат, дәрі қымыз» – деп Жамбыл атамыз жырға бекерден-бекер қоспаса керек. Ал Ақтамберді жырау болса: «Биенің сүті сары бал – қымыздан асқан дәм бар ма?» деп тамсанған. Өйткені, қымыз қазақ халқының ұлттық тағамдарының ішіндегі ең құрметті дастарқан дәмдерінің бірі.

 

                       

 

 

 

                                                                          2                      

                                 Абстракт

 

         Молоко вредно или полезно? Многие люди часто интересуются – можно ли употреблять молоко?

Трудно найти другой продукт питания, который привлекает столько разноречивых мнений, как молоко. Полезно оно или нет для общего состояния здоровья, помогает сбрасывать вес или нет, нужно ли покупать его сырым или пастеризованным, маложирным или с полным содержанием жира — этот список можно продолжать долго.

         С одной стороны есть группы (PCRM и PETA), которые утверждают, что молоко — это зло.

На другом конце спектра находится Ассоциация молочников, которая уверена, что молоко необходимо для поддержания себя в наилучшем состоянии.

А кроме споров о полезности есть еще и политические, этические, экологические факторы, которые надо принимать во внимание. Как и в большинстве прочих споров, истина лежит где-то посередине. Давайте же попробуем найти эту середине

Проводилось исследование — 400 000 взрослых людей по всему миру наблюдались на протяжении 28 лет. Те, кто пил больше всего молока, оказались менее подвержены болезням сердца и инфарктам, чем те, кто пил молока меньше или вообще его не пил (и исследование не спонсировалось молочной индустрией).

Но! В мире наблюдается рост раковых заболеваний, спровоцированных гормонами. А коровье молоко — источник эстрогенов и инсулиноподобного фактора роста (ИФР-1), который может вызвать нерегулируемое деление клеток.

С другой стороны… Зависимость между раком груди или простаты и молока стремится к нулю, если исключить влияние избыточного потребления других животных продуктов — и в частности красного мяса.  Молоко – это универсальный продукт, придуманный природой для того, чтобы рожденное на свет существо быстро выросло и начало самостоятельную жизнь. Состав веществ в молоке подобран для максимального роста конкретного существа. Ниже приведена таблица зависимости скорости увеличения массы новорожденного от концентрации протеина и кальция в молоке.

 

 

 

                   

 

 

 

                                                        3

                                   Abstact

      

      Milk is secreted by the mammary gland of mammals to feed their offspring. Cows milk is commonly used as human food, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo, yak, horses and camels is also used. Milk contains large amounts of essential nutrients and has rightly been recognised as nature's single most complete food.

As a food, milk serves the following broad purposes: (a) growth, (b) reproduction, © supply of energy, (d) maintenance and repair and (e) appetite satisfaction. The requirements of these categories vary with the individual, and in some instances not all the stated functions of the food need to be served, e.g. adults no longer require food for growth whereas infants do. The functions of a food are served specifically through the various nutritionally important components, comprising proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water.

Nutritionally, milk has been defined as "the most nearly perfect food". It provides more essential nutrients in significant amounts than any other single food. Milk is an outstanding source of calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth, and contains riboflavin, vitamins B6, A and B1 in significant amounts. It also cMilk fat or butterfat is the second largest component of milk and is of major commercial value. It serves nutritionally as an energy source and supplies essential fatty acids.

Fat content is closely followed by milk proteins at about 3.4%. Milk proteins in turn are subdivided into casein, comprising approximately 76–80% of the total milk proteins, and the whey proteins, comprising roughly 20–24%.

The whey proteins are of higher nutritional value than casein. Milk proteins are outstanding sources of essential amino acids.

The nutritive value of milk products is based on the high nutritive value of milk as modified by processing. Over-processing and, in particular, severe heat treatment reduce the nutritional value of milk. Butter-making concentrates the fat-soluble nutrients, while cheese-making concentrates the milk fat and the major protein fractions.ontains B12, the antipernicious anaemia vitamin.In some instances milk is fortified with certain nutrients, e.g. vitamin D. It is also possible to replace butterfat with a cheaper fat, as is often done in the manufacture of calf milk replacers and in powdered milk for certain markets. Milk components are also used in other foods: sodium caseinate is used as a protein source in sausages and "filled" meats, whey proteins are used in confectionery and milk proteins are used in sauces for instant foods.         Кіші Ғылым Академиясы Маңғыстау облысы Ақтау қаласы

 

 

School:№11

Scientific author of work: Nurkhozha Nurai and    Izturganova Aktolkin

Class: 7 «Ә»

Theme: «Milk — is the most useful for our Health »

Section: English

Scientific leaders of work:   Sabitaeva Bibigul  and

                                      Sandybaeva Sagira  

                                     Teachers of English;  School 11

                                      City Zhanaozen;  village Tenge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                      Aktau 2014-2015

Milk –is the most useful of our Health

                                  Plan:

              I.   Introduction

1.1.  Milk

1.2.  Why the Milk is a useful  of our Health?

1.3.   Mother’s milk and animals Milk.

 II. Stages of investigation.

2.1. Milk is a useful or danger

 2.2. Milk products in our Country

 2.3.  Which animals milk is an important for children?

                  III. The Purpose of investigation.

3.4. Goat’s milk

3.5. Camel’s milk

3.6. Horse milk

3.7.  Cow’s milk

3.8.  Donkey’s milk

III. Conclusion.

 4.2. To know about the milk is an important for unhealthy people.

 4.3. Our town’s Milk Factory is the best factory in our Country.

IV. List of Literatures, that was used.

V. My suggestion.

VI. Teacher’s opinion.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                                                             1

 

                                 Абстракт

     

 Сүт — барлық жастағы адамдарүшін жұғымдылығы жоғары, оңай сіңетін өнім. 100 грамм сүтте 3 грамға жуық белок, көптеген мөлшерде оңай сіңірілген кальций мен фосфор қосындылары, сондай-ақ белгілі мөлшерде А1, В2, Д дәрумендері бар. 100 грамм сүтағзаға 60-қа жуық килокалориябереді екен. Сүттің пайдасы шаш етектен.

Адамзат баласы дүниеге келген кезде әуелі ана сүтін қорек етеді. Ана сүті өмірге келген жас сәбидің дамып, өсуіне ықпал етеді. Себебі, оның құрамында балаға қажетті элементтер бар.

Жас сәбиге сүт қаншалықты қажет болса, үлкен адамдарға да соншалықты қажет. Сүт құрамындағы ақуыз тырнақ, шаш өсімін жақсартып, сүйектердің қатайып, мықты болуына әсер етеді.Күнделікті майлылығы төмен сүт өнімдерін пайдалану ас қорыту жүйесін жақсартады.

 Сүт деген тақырыпты таңдағанымыздың себебіде осы мәліметтерді білу біздің мақсатымыз.

Сүт те бар элементтер айранда да бар. Сондай-ақ, айранда ағзадағы зат алмасу жүйесін жылдамдатады. Артық салмақтан арылуды көздейтін жандар күніне 1 стакан айран ішсе, діттеген мақсатына жете алады.Әсіресе, айранды кешкі уақытта ішкен пайдалы.

Қазақтың ұлттық сусындарының (айран, қымыз, сүт, шұбат) адам денсаулығына тигізетін пайдасы орасан зор. Бабаларымыз қадірлеген жылқы малының сүті – қымыздың емдік қасиеті бар екендігі ежелден мәлім. Дені сауадамның ағзасы бір тәулікте орта есеппен 50 мг С дәруменін қажет етсе, бір литр қымыз құрамында 200-260 мг С дәрумені бар екен. Қымызда сонымен қатар сөл бөлу және жүрек жұмысын жақсартатын Втобындағы В(1), В(2), В(3), оныңішінде қанның жасалуына қатысатын В12 дәрумені және ағзадағы тотығу-тотықсыздану реакцияларына әсер ететін С тобы дәрумендері, сондай-ақ, А тобы дәрумендері кездеседі.

Шіріткіш микробтарға, ішек таяқшаларына және сарғыш стафилококтарға қарсы жойғыш күші бар қымыз – туберкулез, сүзек, дизентерияға, дифтерия бактерияларына тосқауыл қояды. «Ауруға – ем, сауға – қуат, дәрі қымыз» – деп Жамбыл атамыз жырға бекерден-бекер қоспаса керек. Ал Ақтамберді жырау болса: «Биенің сүті сары бал – қымыздан асқан дәм бар ма?» деп тамсанған. Өйткені, қымыз қазақ халқының ұлттық тағамдарының ішіндегі ең құрметті дастарқан дәмдерінің бірі.

 

                       

 

 

 

                                                                          2                      

                                 Абстракт

 

         Молоко вредно или полезно? Многие люди часто интересуются – можно ли употреблять молоко?

Трудно найти другой продукт питания, который привлекает столько разноречивых мнений, как молоко. Полезно оно или нет для общего состояния здоровья, помогает сбрасывать вес или нет, нужно ли покупать его сырым или пастеризованным, маложирным или с полным содержанием жира — этот список можно продолжать долго.

         С одной стороны есть группы (PCRM и PETA), которые утверждают, что молоко — это зло.

На другом конце спектра находится Ассоциация молочников, которая уверена, что молоко необходимо для поддержания себя в наилучшем состоянии.

А кроме споров о полезности есть еще и политические, этические, экологические факторы, которые надо принимать во внимание. Как и в большинстве прочих споров, истина лежит где-то посередине. Давайте же попробуем найти эту середине

Проводилось исследование — 400 000 взрослых людей по всему миру наблюдались на протяжении 28 лет. Те, кто пил больше всего молока, оказались менее подвержены болезням сердца и инфарктам, чем те, кто пил молока меньше или вообще его не пил (и исследование не спонсировалось молочной индустрией).

Но! В мире наблюдается рост раковых заболеваний, спровоцированных гормонами. А коровье молоко — источник эстрогенов и инсулиноподобного фактора роста (ИФР-1), который может вызвать нерегулируемое деление клеток.

С другой стороны… Зависимость между раком груди или простаты и молока стремится к нулю, если исключить влияние избыточного потребления других животных продуктов — и в частности красного мяса.  Молоко – это универсальный продукт, придуманный природой для того, чтобы рожденное на свет существо быстро выросло и начало самостоятельную жизнь. Состав веществ в молоке подобран для максимального роста конкретного существа. Ниже приведена таблица зависимости скорости увеличения массы новорожденного от концентрации протеина и кальция в молоке.

 

 

 

                   

 

 

 

                                                        3

                                   Abstact

      

      Milk is secreted by the mammary gland of mammals to feed their offspring. Cows milk is commonly used as human food, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo, yak, horses and camels is also used. Milk contains large amounts of essential nutrients and has rightly been recognised as nature's single most complete food.

As a food, milk serves the following broad purposes: (a) growth, (b) reproduction, © supply of energy, (d) maintenance and repair and (e) appetite satisfaction. The requirements of these categories vary with the individual, and in some instances not all the stated functions of the food need to be served, e.g. adults no longer require food for growth whereas infants do. The functions of a food are served specifically through the various nutritionally important components, comprising proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water.

Nutritionally, milk has been defined as "the most nearly perfect food". It provides more essential nutrients in significant amounts than any other single food. Milk is an outstanding source of calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth, and contains riboflavin, vitamins B6, A and B1 in significant amounts. It also cMilk fat or butterfat is the second largest component of milk and is of major commercial value. It serves nutritionally as an energy source and supplies essential fatty acids.

Fat content is closely followed by milk proteins at about 3.4%. Milk proteins in turn are subdivided into casein, comprising approximately 76–80% of the total milk proteins, and the whey proteins, comprising roughly 20–24%.

The whey proteins are of higher nutritional value than casein. Milk proteins are outstanding sources of essential amino acids.

The nutritive value of milk products is based on the high nutritive value of milk as modified by processing. Over-processing and, in particular, severe heat treatment reduce the nutritional value of milk. Butter-making concentrates the fat-soluble nutrients, while cheese-making concentrates the milk fat and the major protein fractions.ontains B12, the antipernicious anaemia vitamin.In some instances milk is fortified with certain nutrients, e.g. vitamin D. It is also possible to replace butterfat with a cheaper fat, as is often done in the manufacture of calf milk replacers and in powdered milk for certain markets. Milk components are also used in other foods: sodium caseinate is used as a protein source in sausages and "filled" meats, whey proteins are used in confectionery and milk proteins are used in sauces for instant foods.                   

   I.  Introduction.

1.     Milk.

        This article is about the fluid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. For milk derived from plants, see Plant milk. For other uses of the word, see Milk (disambigIuation).

      Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest other types of food. Early-lactation milk contains colostrum, which carries the mother's antibodies to its young and can reduce the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many other nutrients and the carbohydrate lactose. The majority of the world's population is lactose intolerant.

      As an agricultural product, milk is extracted from mammals during or soon after pregnancy and is used as food for humans. Worldwide, dairy farms produced about 730 million tonnes of milk in 2011, from 260 million dairy cows. India is the world's largest producer and consumer of milk, yet neither exports nor imports it. New Zealand, the European Union's 28 member states, Australia, and the United States are the world's largest exporters of milk and milk products. China and Russia are the world's largest importers of milk and milk products.

       Throughout the world, there are more than six billion consumers of milk and milk products. Over 750 million people live within dairy farm.  The term milk is also used for white colored, non-animal beverages resembling milk in color and texture  such as soy milk, rice milk, almond milk, and coconut milk. In addition, a substance secreted by pigeons to feed their young is called "crop milk" and bears some resemblance to mammalian milk, although it is not consumed as a milk substitute. Dairy relates to milk and milk production, e.g. dairy products. Milk can be synthesized in a laboratory, from water, fatty acids and proteins.                                                                                                                                             

       As a food, milk serves the following broad purposes:  growth,  reproduction,  supply of energy,  maintenance and repair and appetite satisfaction. The requirements of these categories vary with the individual, and in some instances not all the stated functions of the food need to be served, e.g. adults no longer require food for growth whereas infants do. The functions of a food are served specifically through the various nutritionally important components, comprising proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water.

 

                                              

2.     Why is the Milk is  a useful of our Health?

    Why is milk good for your health?

     Milk is known for its richness in calcium and thus its importance for your bones, but did you know that milk contains more than 9 other essential nutrients?

It contains protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fat:

Protein is important to fight diseases, reAnew cells, build muscles and maintain healthy hair and nails. That is why your diet should provide enough proteins. Milk is an important source of protein, since each glass contains almost 8 grams.

The source of carbohydrates in milk is lactose which gives energy to the body.

      Minerals and vitamins: Milk is rich in many nutrients that are essential for good health, for stronger bones (Calcium, Vitamin D, Phosphorous), for more energy (B vitamins), for a stronger immune system and for healthier skin (Vitamin A).     Fats in milk constitute essential fatty acids which are important for body cells, as long as they are taken in moderate quantities.

      Ask the doctor: Is milk fattening?

     Milk is not high in calories when it’s low fat or 0% fat. If you’re on a diet, concentrate on lowering the amount of fat within your diet. So, don’t remove milk totally from your diet, but choose low fat or 0% fat milk since it contains all the nutrients found in full cream milk except for the fat.

    It is important to know that not all milks are the same. Fortifying milk with vitamins and minerals is a very delicate process, and the quality and quantity of the added nutrients have a direct effect on health.

    Good to know:

Nestlé NESVITA Pro-Bones Low Fat or 0 Fat is superior to normal milk, because it is fortified with calcium, and also contains Calcilock TM, a unique combination of nutrients that helps absorb and loc.                                                                                                     It helps keep your weight in check.

   Several observational studies show that people who consume more dairy products weigh less and have less body fat than those who consume less. Milk seems to satisfy our hunger better than other drinks—perhaps due to its protein, suggests a study published in 2009 in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. In that study, people who drank skim milk felt fuller and ate less at their next meal than people who drank                                                                                                                                                   

     If you are concerned about weight gain, choose low-fat or nonfat milk instead of whole milk, which can have as much as 8 grams of fat per serving k the calcium into the bones.

     2. It builds bone.

     Just 1 cup of milk provides 30 percent of the daily value of calcium, a mineral that helps build and maintain strong bones and teeth. To get that amount of calcium from other foods you’d have to eat more than 7 cups of raw broccoli, for example. Calcium is critical to the formation of bones in children and teenagers and becomes equally important to rebuild the bone mass that we lose as we age.

     3. It’s the #1 source of vitamin D.

Scientists are discovering that vitamin D is not only important for proper calcium absorption, but also may improve immunity, reduce risks for some cancers, diabetes and multiple sclerosis, and promote better blood pressure. According to new research presented at the annual Experimental Biology meeting in April 2010, milk provides nearly 43 percent of the vitamin D we get through our diets, making it the number one source. Fortification of milk began in the 1930s to prevent rickets, a disease characterized by soft, deformed bones. Today, all commercial milk sold in the United States is fortified with vitamin D. This is not necessarily true for other dairy products.

     4. It helps keep muscles strong.

One cup of milk provides 16 percent of the daily value for protein, which builds and repairs muscles. In fact, several small studies (partially funded by the dairy industry) found that chocolate milk might help athletes refuel as well as or better than popular sports drinks. Chocolate milk contains the mix of protein and carbohydrate the body needs to recover its energy supplies after an intense workout.

    Milk is an important part of our diet. We begin drinking it when we are young, but our intake decreases as we get older. Some people shy away from it because they fear that it will add too much fat to their diet. Others leave it out because they believe that they no longer need it. You are never too old to reap the rewards of drinking milk. It is a great source of vitamins and nutrients, and it has several health benefits, such as:

     1. Glowing Skin

     Cleopatra took milk baths to help her skin stay soft, supple and glowing. You can do the same, or you can drink a few glasses of whole milk each day to get its benefits. Milk has several nutrients which help skin look its best. It has lactic acid which can act as an exfoliant and enzymes to help smooth skin. It also has amino acids that help keep skin moisturized. Milk can help prevent damage from environmental toxins because it has antioxidants. However, if you have a sensitivity to milk or dairy products, milk can actually aggravate your skin.

        3.Healthy Bones and Teeth

       Milk is a great source of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones. Not only do young children need it while their bones are growing, but adults need it to keep their bones strong and to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is also great for strong teeth, and it helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. In order for the calcium to be absorbed by the body, vitamin D must be present. If you have a vitamin D deficiency, buy milk that is fortified with extra vitamin D to ensure that your body absorbs the calcium.

        3. Muscles

       Milk contains protein, which helps to rebuild muscles. Drink a glass of milk after you exercise to give your body what it needs to recover. It will help to keep soreness at bay while replenishing fluids that you lost during your workout.

      4. Weight Loss

      Studies show that women who drink low-fat or skim milk lose more weight than those who exclude milk from their diet. It is a great appetizer and it makes a healthy snack. Add a glass to your dinner, or drink a glass while eating a piece of fruit.

      5. Less Stress

     Milk is a great way to de-stress at the end of the day. A glass of warm milk will help to relax tense muscles and soothe frayed nerves. Milk has also been proven to reduce symptoms of PMS and boost energy. The next time you are feeling frazzled, try drinking a glass of milk while you soak in a bubble bath.

     6. Healthy Body

     Milk has properties that lower high blood pressure and risk of strokes. It reduces the liver’s production of cholesterol, and it can act as an antacid. Vitamins A and B in milk can help build good eyesight. Milk has also been show to help lower risk of certain cancers.

   There are several varieties of milk on the market, such as whole, 2%, low-fat and fat free. If you are concerned about the growth hormones used in milk, choose to go the organic route.  With all of the types of milk available, you should be able to find something that fits your diet and nutritional needs.

               3. Mother’s Milk and Animal’s Milk.                                                         Breast milk is widely acknowledged as the most complete form of nutrition for infants, with a range of benefits for infants' health, growth, immunity and development.

   — Healthy People 2010, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

      Breast milk is a unique nutritional source that cannot adequately be replaced by any other food, including infant formula. Although pollutants can accumulate in breast milk, it remains superior to infant formula from the perspective of the overall health of both mother and child.

     Infants are fragile and susceptible to disease, partly because their bodies are not fully developed. They must be treated with special care and given adequate nourishment. Infant formulas are able to mimic a few of the nutritional components of breast milk, but formula cannot hope to duplicate the vast and constantly changing array of essential nutrients in human milk. Nevertheless, breastfeeding is often devalued, both in the United States and abroad, and in many parts of the world it must compete with relentless advertising by infant-formula companies.

     Studies have demonstrated a number of important health benefits to breastfeeding. Among them:

     Breast-fed children are more resistant to disease and infection early in life than formula-fed children.

     Breast-fed children are less likely to contract a number of diseases later in life, including juvenile diabetes, multiple sclerosis, heart disease, and cancer before the age of 15

      Mothers who breastfeed are less likely to develop osteoporosis later in life, are able to lose weight gained during pregnancy more easily and have a lower risk of breast, uterine and ovarian cancer.

      Breastfeeding also has economic advantages: it's cheaper than buying formula and helps avoid medical bills later because it helps equip the baby to fight off disease and infection. New parents are well advised to learn all they can about the pros and cons ofbreast milk and formula. See below for more information the benefits of breastfeeding.

 

Milk of different animals

Today milk — is an obligatory food product of healthy people. It is a part of almost all diets and are widely used in the nutrition of people who deal with the impact of negative production factors. People use in their food not only cow milk, but also milk of other animals, both in natural form and in the form of various products.

With more than 5,000 mammals on the planet, including dolphins and platypus, it seems strange that Americans should reserve their dairy palate nearly exclusively for cow products, but so long as the almighty dollar rules, giraffe milkshakes probably aren't on the horizon. The Skinny on Milk Nutrition: Cow, Goat, Rice or Soy?     "It all comes down to resource allocation and efficiency and the profitability of the enterprise," said Michael Van Amburgh, an associate professor of animal science at Cornell University who specializes in dairy management.

       Van Amburgh says that economics and cultural heritage, not an inherent superiority of the milk itself, are the two main drivers behind cows' national monopoly on dairy aisles. Sheep and goats, which are also relatively efficient milk producers, have been in America for about as long as cows, and they do have a supporting role in the country's culinary canon. But when it comes to gallon returns, Van Amburgh says they can't compete.

He told Life's Little Mysteries this is partly because cows' docile dispositions make them easy to manage and confine, an invaluable virtue when it comes to mass production. Goats and sheep, on the other hand, "run around a lot" and tend to be most useful if raisers let them graze freely on hard-to-reach patches of grass that would otherwise go to waste.

But even if confinement of goats to dairy-production assembly lines became the norm, Van Amburgh says their daily per-animal milk production, about half a gallon, would still keep them from being as economically attractive as cows, which each produce about 10 gallons of milk per day.

Flavor and texture, which are governed in part by fat and protein content, also contribute to cow milk's dominance in America. Water buffalo are raised around the world for their milk, including in Italy, where the product is used to make mozzarella. But as a substitute for a glass of cow's milk, or as something to pour over cereal, Van Amburgh doesn't think water buffalo milk has a lot of potential.

"Quite frankly, it's a little syrupy," he said.

Camel milk, on the other hand, tastes like "very fresh, low-fat cow's milk," according to Oasis Camel Dairy, a rare U.S. camel-milking operation in Ramona, Calif. For now, Americans will have to take the company's word for it, as Oasis is still working with the United States Department of Agriculture to arrive at grading standards for camel dairies in California, so that the product can be legally sold there.

The FDA permits the consumption of camel milk, but unpasteurized milk products must meet state standards for sale.

I.                   Stages of investigation.

2.1 Milk is useful or danger

Milk is secreted by the mammary gland of mammals to feed their offspring. Cows milk is commonly used as human food, but milk from sheep, goats, buffalo, yak, horses and camels is also used. Milk contains large amounts of essential nutrients and has rightly been recognised as nature's single most complete food.

As a food, milk serves the following broad purposes: (a) growth, (b) reproduction, © supply of energy, (d) maintenance and repair and (e) appetite satisfaction. The requirements of these categories vary with the individual, and in some instances not all the stated functions of the food need to be served, e.g. adults no longer require food for growth whereas infants do. The functions of a food are served specifically through the various nutritionally important components, comprising proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, minerals, vitamins and water.

Nutritionally, milk has been defined as "the most nearly perfect food". It provides more essential nutrients in significant amounts than any other single food. Milk is an outstanding source of calcium and phosphorus for bones and teeth, and contains riboflavin, vitamins B6, A and B1 in significant amounts. It also contains B12, the antipernicious anaemia vitamin.

           Milk fat or butterfat is the second largest component of milk and is of major commercial value. It serves nutritionally as an energy source and supplies essential fatty acids.

         Fat content is closely followed by milk proteins at about 3.4%. Milk proteins in turn are subdivided into casein, comprising approximately 76–80% of the total milk proteins, and the whey proteins, comprising roughly 20–24%.

The whey proteins are of higher nutritional value than casein. Milk proteins are outstanding sources of essential amino acids.

          The nutritive value of milk products is based on the high nutritive value of milk as modified by processing. Over-processing and, in particular, severe heat treatment reduce the nutritional value of milk. Butter-making concentrates the fat-soluble nutrients, while cheese-making concentrates the milk fat and the major protein fractions.

          In some instances milk is fortified with certain nutrients, e.g. vitamin D. It is also possible to replace butterfat with a cheaper fat, as is often done in the manufacture of calf milk replacers and in powdered milk for certain markets. Milk components are also used in other foods: sodium caseinate is used as a protein source in sausages and "filled" meats, whey proteins are used in confectionery and milk proteins are used in sauces for instant foods.

       Figure 1 shows the major milk constituents and the products that can be made from each of them. Rural producers make butter and ghee from the fat fraction of milk. Ghee has an excellent storage stability. Where ghee is not made, butter is occasionally spiced and heated to preserve it. Salt is rarely used as a butter preservative in the rural sector.

        Figure 1. Flow chart illustrating the incorporation of the major milk solid fractions in milk products.    Casein is recovered with fat in cheese-making and can be recovered from sour milk after churning to make a cottage cheese. Because of their greater solubility, the whey proteins are more difficult to recover as a discrete product and in the smallholder setting are best utilised by direct consumption.

        Milk sugar—lactose—is soluble in milk. Some people are allergic to fresh milk because of lactose intolerance but can consume sour milk because the lactose level has been solids. Lactic acid contributes to the flavour of many milk reduced by fermentation to lactic and other acids. This reduces milk pH and assists in the preservation of other milk solids. Lactic acid contributes to the flavour of many milk products. Because it is present in solution, lactose is difficult to recover as a discrete product.                                                                                                                                             Our current government guidelines recommend drinking three glasses of milk a day for every American over five.  For kids under five, Uncle Sam recommends chugging two glasses a day.  But is milk a health food?  Should we really be eating dairy?  Is there any real science behind this, or is this just the result of the powerful Dairy Council lobby?

   Got proof?

     I recently wrote a blog called Got Proof? The Lack of Evidence for Milk’s Benefits, which was based on a research article by Dr. David Ludwig and Dr. Walter Willett from Harvard, published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.  The study by Ludwig and Willett showed a lack of evidence for the government’s recommendations.  The Harvard scientists found no data to support the claim that the consumption of dairy leads to better bones, weight loss, or improved health.  They also found some serious risks tied to dairy consumption, including weight gain, increased cancer risk, and increased fracture risk.  It turns out milk does not build strong bones! They also found that dairy may cause other problems like constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, bloating, gas, diarrhea, allergies, eczema, and acne. So, is milk nature’s perfect food?  Yes. If you’re a calf.

2.2.         Milk products in our Country.

Although any mammal can produce milk, commercial dairy farms are typically one-species enterprises. In developed countries, dairy farms typically consist of high producing dairy cows. Other species used in commercial dairy farming include goats, sheep, and camels. In Italy, donkey dairies are growing in popularity to produce an alternative milk source for human infants.

      Bovine Dairy Farms.

      Most dairy farms sell the male calves born by their cows, usually for veal production, or breeding depending on quality of the bull calf, rather than raising non-milk-producing stock. Many dairy farms also grow their own feed, typically including corn, and hay. This is fed directly to the cows, or is stored as silage for use during the winter season.

A dairy farm on the banks of the Columbia River in Clark County, Washington (May 1973).

     History. Dairy farming has been part of agriculture for thousands of years. Historically it has been one part of small, diverse farms. In the last century or so larger farms doing only dairy production have emerged. Large scale dairy farming is only viable where either a large amount of milk is required for production of more durable dairy products such as cheese, butter, etc. or there is a substantial market of people with cash to buy milk, but no cows of their own.

      Hand milking

Woman hand milking a cow. Centralized dairy farming as we understand it primarily developed around villages and cities, where residents were unable to have cows of their own due to a lack of grazing land. Near the town, farmers could make some extra money on the side by having additional animals and selling the milk in town. The dairy farmers would fill barrels with milk in the morning and bring it to market on a wagon. Until the late 19th century, the milking of the cow was done by hand. In the United States, several large dairy operations existed in some northeastern states and in the west, that involved as many as several hundred cows, but an individual milker could not be expected to milk more than a dozen cows a day. Smaller operations predominated.

       For most herds, milking took place indoors twice a day, in a barn with the cattle tied by the neck with ropes or held in place by stanchions. Feeding could occur simultaneously with milking in the barn, although most dairy cattle were pastured during the day between milkings. Such examples of this method of dairy farming are difficult to locate, but some are preserved as a historic site for a glimpse into the days gone by. One such instance that is open for this is at Point Reyes National Seashore.

    Vacuum bucket milking.   Demonstration of a new Soviet milker device. East Germany, 1952.

    The first milking machines were an extension of the traditional milking pail. The early milker device fit on top of a regular milk pail and sat on the floor under the cow. Following each cow being milked, the bucket would be dumped into a holding tank. These were introduced in the early 20th century.  This developed into the Surge hanging milker. Prior to milking a cow, a large wide leather strap called a surcingle was put around the cow, across the cow's lower back. The milker device and collection tank hung underneath the cow from the strap. This innovation allowed the cow to move around naturally during the milking process rather than having to stand perfectly still over a bucket on the floor.

     Milking pipeline.   Main article: milking pipeline

     The next innovation in automatic milking was the milk pipeline, introduced in the late 20th century. This uses a permanent milk-return pipe and a second vacuum pipe that encircles the barn or milking parlor above the rows of cows, with quick-seal entry ports above each cow. By eliminating the need for the milk container, the milking device shrank in size and weight to the point where it could hang under the cow, held up only by the sucking force of the milker nipples on the cow's udder. The milk is pulled up into the milk-return pipe by the vacuum system, and then flows by gravity to the milkhouse vacuum-breaker that puts the milk in the storage tank. The pipeline system greatly reduced the physical labor of milking since the farmer no longer needed to carry around huge heavy buckets of milk from each cow.

    The pipeline allowed barn length to keep increasing and expanding, but after a point farmers started to milk the cows in large groups, filling the barn with one-half to one-third of the herd, milking the animals, and then emptying and refilling the barn. As herd sizes continued to increase, this evolved into the more efficient milking parlor.

        2.3 Which animals milk is an important for Children?  Milk    - Is It Really Good For Our Children?

Multiple Health Problems from Milk

People are beginning to question the long-standing belief that cow’s milk is the perfect food for children. Studies now link the consumption of cow’s milk to multiple health problems. The long list includes iron-deficiency anemia, gastrointestinal bleeding, cramps, chronic diarrhea, chronic nasal congestion, allergies, asthma, colic, rheumatoid arthritis, musculoskeletal pains, kidney disease, diabetes and heart disease.  Milk and other dairy products may actually be harmful to a child’s health. This may sound a bit shocking to some people. How  can America’s most trusted food be unhealthy and why are most parents unaware of this information? This is understandable when you look at the advertising practices and political  pressure of the American Dairy Association. They spend hundreds of millions of dollars to convince us that if we don’t drink milk, we would be calcium deficient and sickly. The dairy industry is a very powerful force, controlling the USDA’s nutritional guidelines and influencing our thoughts about milk. Subtle messages like “Milk Does a Body Good” are imprinted in our minds from an early age.

     Lactose Intolerance

     Many people are intolerant to lactose, the sugar in milk. It needs the enzyme, lactase, to break it down into simple sugars so it can be absorbed into the bloodstream. It is common for children begin to gradually lose their lactase activity soon after they are weaned. Without enough lactase, the lactose is incompletely digested and can cause bloating, belching, gas, cramps, and possibly diarrhea. Frank Oski, M.D., head of Pediatric Medicine at John Hopkins University School of Medicine, suggests in his book, Don’t Drink Your Milk!, that after one to 2 years of age, the time of “normal” weaning from breast milk, milk should be removed from the diet completely. The American Academy of Pediatrics (1996) recommends that infants under a year of age not receive whole cow’s milk.

       Milk Can Cause Anemia

       Milk can cause anemia in children for several reasons. Sensitivity to milk can cause blood to slowly and steadily seep into the intestines. This lowers the blood protein level, which can lead to anemia, even though the amount of blood lost each day is too small to see. Dr. Oski points out that “it is estimated that half the iron deficiency in the United States is primarily a result of this form of cow’s milk induced gastrointestinal bleeding.” In addition, milk provides very little iron (about one-tenth of a milligram per 8-ounce serving) and it blocks the absorption of iron. Children that are filling up on a lot of milk and dairy products may not be getting enough iron-rich foods to begin with, but when they do get iron, the excess milk may be hindering the absorption of the iron.

       Allergies to Milk

       Allergies to milk proteins are very common in children. The symptoms can be very subtle. Chronic diarrhea is a common sign of allergy to milk. Diarrhea is a big problem since it impairs a child’s ability to absorb nutrients. Other symptoms include eczema or other skin rashes, asthma, chronic nasal congestion, fatigue, learning disabilities, recurrent bronchitis, chronic ear infections, and vomiting. If

your child experiences any of these symptoms, try eliminating all milk and dairy products from the diet. Watch for signs of improvement. There has been much success in eliminating asthma, ear infections and eczema after discontinuing all dairy products. Cow’s milk can also cause colic in babies. Mothers can pass the milk proteins to their nursing babies if they drink cow’s milk themselves.

        Diabetes from Milk

        Insulin-dependent diabetes  has been linked to the consumption of dairy products. According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, researchers found that a specific dairy protein sparks an autoimmune reaction, which is believed to be what destroys the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas.

       The Wrong Type of Fat

       Another serious problem is the amount of saturated fat and cholesterol in milk. It contains about 35 grams of fat per quart. 60% of this is saturated. It is very low in the essential fatty acids that your child needs. We now know that consuming saturated fats can cause heart disease and many other illnesses such as cancer and obesity. These problems can begin in childhood. Drinking milk from an early age could have life-long consequences.

      There is a common misconception that children under age 2 need the fat from         whole milk for proper brain growth.

      There is no nutritional requirement for cow’s milk fat. Only calves need the fat from cow’s milk. What babies and toddlers really need are essential fatty acids, not found in cow’s milk, but found in human breast milk and foods such as fish and flaxseeds. Older children are usually given low-fat milk because of the consequences of saturated fat. This can also be a mistake since low-fat dairy products are higher in protein than the high-fat products. It is the protein in milk that is responsible for inducing allergic reactions and other health problems such as anemia and diabetes. In addition, the high protein levels in milk can lead to a negative calcium balance in the body.

       Too Much Protein

      A major consideration with a typical child’s diet is excess protein. Children are told to drink three glasses of milk every day. In doing so, they are consuming an average of 209% of their actual protein needs. Added to all the other protein in their diet, this creates a protein overdose, which is a contributor to many health problems. High levels of protein, especially animal protein, may cause the kidneys to excrete large amounts of calcium, creating a negative calcium balance. If there is too much protein in your child’s body, it may not matter how much calcium goes in. The more protein in the diet, the more calcium is lost. Drink milk for strong bones? A report from the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine says that this is a common myth. These doctors say that keeping strong bones depends more on preventing calcium loss than on increasing calcium intake.

        Many parents are worried about their children getting enough protein. The World Health Organization, the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Research Council say we need only 8% of our total daily calories from protein. They arrive at this figure by adding a safety factor of an extra 30%. Human mother’s milk provides 5% of its calories as protein. John Robbins in his book, May All Be Fed, Diet for a New World points out the wisdom of nature. “Nature seems to be telling us that little babies, whose bodies are growing the fastest they will ever grow in their lives, and whose protein needs are maximum, are best served when 5% of their food calories come as protein.” He also states that “if we ate nothing but wheat (16% protein), or oatmeal (15%) or even pumpkin (12%), we would easily be getting more than enough protein”.

        How Safe is Milk?

        If it’s pasteurized, then it’s safe? The largest outbreak of salmonella poisoning ever came from [pasteurized] milk. There are contaminants in milk, from bacteria to pesticides to drugs. The dairy industry must keep the cows producing milk in order to stay in business. So they heavily use antibiotics, hormones and other drugs.

        These are passed directly into the milk. Most mothers are concerned about taking any medications while breastfeeding. We also need to think about what the cows are ingesting if we are drinking milk. According to the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, about one-third of milk products have been shown to be contaminated with antibiotic traces. The testing method used by most states to screen milk for drugs is unable to detect residues from most of the medications used in the dairy industry today. Organic milk and dairy products are available, and may be a wise choice for parents who do not want to give up dairy. Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) is a genetically engineered hormone that is injected into dairy cows to boost milk production. It increases the risk of udder infections so more antibiotics are used to treat cows. This means higher antibiotic residues in milk which could lead to the evolution of drug-resistant bacteria in the body. rBGH stimulates the cow’s liver to produce another hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). IGF-1 in rBGH milk is a potential risk factor for both breast and gastrointestinal cancers. There have been no long-term studies completed on BGH and the short-term studies that have been completed have major flaws. There is no required labeling of BGH produced milk and milk products. Many of our children are drinking milk with BGH and this hormone is also in the breast milk of lactating mothers who drink milk.

      What About Calcium?

      The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences has recently updated its recommendations for calcium intake. These recommendations are very high due to the difficulty in absorption of calcium. The recommendations are based on needs for individuals who eat the typical American diet, which is heavy in animal products.

Age Group Recommended Intake

1 to 3 years: 500 mg.

4 to 8 years: 800 mg.

9 to 18 years: 1,300 mg.

    There is a common misconception that children have to drink milk to get enough calcium. The calcium from cow’s milk is not absorbed into the body very well. About 66% of the calcium in breast milk is absorbed, but only 20 to 30% of the calcium in cow’s milk is absorbed. A report from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that calcium absorbability is higher from kale than from milk and concluded that greens such as kale can be considered to be at least as good as milk because of their calcium absorbability. Calcium supplied by beans and seeds is easily absorbed into the body. Important minerals needed to process the calcium, such as magnesium, are in plant foods. People who eat only plant foods  need less calcium than people eating animal products, since their diets are high in minerals and exclude the animal proteins that cause the body to excrete calcium. Calcium requirements are different for each individual, but in some vegans, the need for calcium can be as much as 50% less than for people eating animal protein.

Cow’s milk… contain(s) about 300 milligrams of calcium.

II.                 The Purpose of Investigation.

2.1.         Goat Milk.  Benefits of Goat Milk

     Meyenberg Goat Milk. What does goat’s milk give you that cow’s milk doesn’t? In many parts of the world, goat’s milk is preferred to cow’s milk. Even in the United States, goat milk is gaining popularity. Goats eat less and occupy less grazing space than cows, and in some families the backyard goat supplies milk for family needs. Goat’s milk is believed to be more easily digestible and less allergenic than cow’s milk. Does it deserve this reputation? Let’s disassemble goat’s milk, nutrient-by-nutrient, to see how it compares with cow’s milk.

      Different Fat

       Goat’s milk contains around ten grams of fat per eight ounces compared to 8 to 9 grams in whole cow’s milk, and it’s much easier to find lowfat and non-fat varieties of cow’s milk than it is to purchase lowfat goat’s milk. Unlike cow’s milk, goat’s milk does not contain agglutinin. As a result, the fat globules in goat’s milk do not cluster together, making them easier to digest. Like cow’s milk, goat’s milk is low in essential fatty acids, because goats also have EFA-destroying bacteria in their ruminant stomachs. Yet, goat milk is reported to contain more of the essential fatty acids linoleic and arachnodonic acids, in addition to a higher proportion of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids. These are easier for intestinal enzymes to digest.

        Different Protein

Goat milk protein forms a softer curd (the term given to the protein clumps that are formed by the action of your stomach acid on the protein), which makes the protein more easily and rapidly digestible. Theoretically, this more rapid transit through the stomach could be an advantage to infants and children who regurgitate cow’s milk easily. Goat’s milk may also have advantages when it comes to allergies. Goat’s milk contains only trace amounts of an allergenic casein protein, alpha-S1, found in cow’s milk. Goat’s milk casein is more similar to human milk, yet cow’s milk and goat’s milk contain similar levels of the other allergenic protein, beta lactoglobulin. Scientific studies have not found a decreased incidence of allergy with goat’s milk, but here is another situation where mothers’ observations and scientific studies are at odds with one another. Some mothers are certain that their child tolerates goat’s milk better than cow’s milk, and mothers are more sensitive to children’s reactions than scientific studies. Less Lactose Goat’s milk contains slightly lower levels of lactose (4.1percent versus 4.7 percent in cow’s milk), which may be a small advantage in lactose-intolerant persons. Different Minerals Although the mineral content of goat’s milk and cow’s milk is generally similar, goat’s milk contains 13 percent more calcium, 25 percent more vitamin B-6, 47 percent more vitamin A, 134 percent more potassium, and three times more niacin. It is also four times higher in copper. Goat’s milk also contains 27 percent more of the antioxidant selenium than cow’s milk. Cow’s milk contains five times as much vitamin B-12 as goat’s milk and ten times as much folic acid (12 mcg. in cow’s milk versus 1 mcg. for goat’s milk per eight ounces with an RDA of 75-100 mcg. for children). The fact that goat’s milk contains less than ten percent of the amount of folic acid contained in cow’s milk means that it must be supplemented with folic acid in order to be adequate as a formula or milk substitute for infants and toddlers, and popular brands of goat’s milk may advertise “supplemented with folic acid” on the carton.

       Goat Milk Formula vs Commercial Formula for Allergic Infants

       Parents of babies allergic to cow’s milk and other commercial formulas often ask if it’s safe to use goat’s milk as an alternative. In theory, goat’s milk is less allergenic and more easily digestible than cow’s milk, but it should not be used as a substitute for infant formula. Like cow’s milk, it can cause intestinal irritation and anemia. If your baby under one year of age is allergic to cow’s milk-based formulas, try either a soy-based formula or a hypoallergenic formula. If your baby can’t tolerate either soy or hypoallergenic formulas, in consultation with your doctor and/or a pediatric nutritionist see the goat’s milk formula recipe below.

This formula has stood the test of time. One batch contains 715 calories and nineteen calories per ounce, which is essentially the same as cow’s milk formulas. This is sufficient for an infant six to twelve months. A baby on goat’s milk formula should also receive a multi-vitamin with iron supplement prescribed by her doctor. In infants over one year of age, goat’s milk can be readily used instead of cow’s milk. (Be sure to buy goat’s milk that is certified free of antiobiotics and bovine growth hormone (BGH). For more information about goat’s milk call 1-800-891-GOAT.)

          Goat’s Milk Recipes

          Note: Always consult your healthcare provider before feeding any recipes to infants as a formula. Raw  goat milk may be unsafe for infants, so be sure to use a pasteurized brand.

        2.5.Camel’s   Milk. Camel Milk as a Medicine Camel milk is believed to modulate the immune system. A study of eight children showed its ability to ameliorate allergies in children.

        Camel milk is also used as a medicinal product in India. The Bedouins of the Middle East believe it to have curative powers.[1] cosmetic products are also produced from camel

         Camel milk.    Fresh camel milk

         Camel's milk has supported Bedouin, nomad and pastoral cultures since the domestication of camels millennia ago. Herders may for periods survive solely on the milk when taking the camels on long distances to graze in desert and arid environments.

       Camel dairy farming is an alternative to cow dairy farming in dry regions of the world where bovine farming consumes large amounts of water and electricity to power air-conditioned halls and cooling sprinkler systems. Camel farming, by utilising a native species well-adapted to arid regions, able to eat salty desert plants, has been linked to de-desertification by UNESCO. Camel milk can be found in supermarkets in the UAE, Somalia, Saudi Arabia, Mauritania, and the United States.

       Camel milk is a rich source of proteins with potential antimicrobial and protective activities; these proteins are not found in cow milk or found only in minor amount.[citation needed] Camel milk has enough nutrients to sustain a person through the day. In many countries, camel milk is given to babies suffering from malnutrition.

      Compared to cow, buffalo and ewe milk fat, camel milk fat contains fewer short-chained fatty acids, but the same long-chained fatty acids can be found. Some researchers claim that the value of camel milk is to be found in the high concentrations of linoleic acid among other polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are essential for human nutrition. Camel milk has more fat and protein than cow's milk. Cholesterol in camel milk is lower than cow or goat milk.

      Camel milk has a high vitamin and mineral content and immunoglobin content. Camel milk is three times higher in vitamin C than cow's milk and 10 times higher in iron. It is also high in unsaturated fatty acids and B vitamins but lower in vitamin A and B2 (than cow milk). The composition of camel milk depends on its feed and species: Bactrian milk has a higher fat content than dromedary milk.    Camel milk is lower in lactose than cow's milk. However, levels of potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, sodium and zinc are higher than in cow's milk.

Contents   

1 Production

1.1 India

1.2 USA

2 Milk yields

3 Camel cheese

3.1 Mauritania

4 Camel Milk as a Medicine

5 See also

6 References

7 External links

     Production.    Camel milk is still largely a subsistence product, but production in camel milk dairies is a growing industry.

     India

The NRCC (National Research Centre for Camels) in Bikaner, Rajasthan, India is a research institute producing a quantity of milk daily that it sells at a subsidised price to diabetic patients and to an alternative therapy centre for children with disabilities.

USA

The USA has an imported population of 5,000 camels.

Laws in the United States allow an individual who owns an animal to consume that animal's milk but until recently it was a felony to sell camel milk in the US. Milk sold in the U.S. must be tested for antibiotic residue if it crosses state lines or is sold commercially in stores. As the law stands in most states, the dairies are allowed to sell the milk directly from the farms to customers who buy it directly from the farm. Each state is different with regulations governing the sale of the milk. Milk is allowed to be sold, depending on the state, in raw form, pasteurized, or cow share program. The current market for the milk in the US is for medical purposes and as a food for ethnic populations. There is also a very large demand for the colostrum, which is in very limited amounts and is quite expensive. The cost of producing a quart of camel's milk is considerably higher than that of producing a quart of cow's milk; approximately fifty times more expensive. In the United States, female camels are very rare; they mature slowly and can be bred safely only after age four. Their thirteen month gestation period must conclude in a live birth followed by suckling, else the female camel will stop producing milk. Unlike a dairy cow which is parted from her calf when it is born and then gives milk for six to nine months, a camel can share her milk with the farmer and her calf for twelve to eighteen months. The first company to offer retail camel milk for sale in the US was Desert Farms, which sells camel milk from Amish communities in the mid-west.

     Milk yields

Pakistani and Afghani camels are supposed to produce the highest yields of milk, up to 30 litres per day. The Bactrian camel, produces 5 litres per day and the dromedary produces an average of 20 litres per day. Intensive breeding of cows has created animals that can produce 40 litres per day in ideal conditions. Camels, with their ability to go 21 days without drinking water, and produce milk even when feeding on low-quality fodder, are a sustainable option for food security in difficult environments.

     Camel cheese

Cheese from camel milk is more difficult to make than cheese from the milk of other dairy animals. It does not coagulate easily and bovine rennet fails to coagulate the milk effectively. In camel herding communities camel milk cheeses use spontaneous fermentation, or lactic fermentation to achieve a sour curd. In camel farms in Sudan, the Rashaida tribe use this method to store surplus milk in the rainy season, pulverising the dried curds and adding water for consumption in the dry season. In Mongolia camel milk is consumed as a product at various stages of the curd-making process. Recent advances in cheese making technology have made it  It s possible coagulate camel milk with a vegetable rennet and camel rennet.

             2.6. Horse Milk.

       Horse milk has long been a popular gourmet food with a uniquely delicious flavor and subtle nuances found in no ordinary dairy product.  Horse milk has fruity undertones, a smooth finish and is now joining truffles and Beluga caviar as one of the most coveted treats on the world.  Let’s take a closer look and see why horse milk is taking the gourmet scene by storm.

      Horse Milk — A rare and precious commodity

Far higher in nutrients than cow milk, horse milk has log been a gourmet delicacy.  Now achieving popularity in fine restaurants, Arabian horse dairy products have become very popular.  According to the Draft Horse Journal:   The first reason for drinking horse milk is, of course, not cosmetic but medical, especially for metabolical, gastrointestinal and liver problems, but also for recovering after surgery and severe illness, cholesterol problems, allergy to cows’ milk, stress, skin problems, stiff joints or just to keep fit and well.

    Horse milk strengthens the body, boosts the immune system and increases a person’s energy and vitality. In the case of metabolic disorders, it stimulates internal cleansing.  

 

     2.7. Cow’s Milk.If your child is under 1 year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).

Cow's milk doesn't provide enough:

Vitamin E

Iron.   Essential fatty acids

Your baby's system can't handle the high levels of these nutrients in cow's milk:

Protein

Sodium.  Potassium

It's also hard for your baby to digest the protein and fat in cow's milk.

To provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends that:

  If possible, you should feed your baby breast milk for the first 6 months of life.

You should give your baby only breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life, not cow's milk.

    Starting at age 6 months, you may add solid foods to your baby's diet.

     If breastfeeding is not possible, infant formulas provide a healthy diet for your infant.   Whether you use breast milk or formula, your baby may have colic and be fussy. These are common problems in all babies.  Most of the time, cow's milk formulas don't cause these symptoms, so it won't help if you switch to a different formula.How do I know if it's cow’s milk allergy or colic?    All babies cry, but some cry louder and longer than others – even when they’re not hungry, tired, or in need of a nappy change. This excessive, unexplained crying could be due to colic or a sign that a baby has an allergic reaction to cow’s milk protein. (You should also be aware that colic is itself one of the signs of cow’s milk allergy.) Find out in this section what the difference is between cow’s milk allergy and colic, so you have a better idea of what might be causing your baby’s crying

     What is colic?

    Colic is the medical term used to describe excessive, frequent crying in babies who otherwise appear to be healthy and well. The crying is usually very intense, and the baby’s face might be red and flushed and they may clench their fists, draw up their knees or arch their back. The crying tends to happen for at least 3 hours a day, for more than 3 days a week, and lasting for 3 weeks or more.

Alongside the crying, other signs of colic in a baby could include:

Pulling the legs up to the tummy

Arching the back

Stiffening the limbs

Being full of wind

Having a tense, bloated belly

When does colic occur and how common is it?

It usually begins within the first few weeks of life but often stops by the time the baby is 4 months old, and by 6 months at the latest.

     Colic is relatively common – it’s thought to affect around 1 in 5 babies.

     What causes colic?

     Experts aren’t really sure what causes colic or why certain babies get it but not others. Food allergies like cow’s milk allergy (the most common type of food allergy in infants and young children) are one possible cause. Babies with cow’s milk allergy are likely to show colicky symptoms. There are various other ideas about what lies behind colic:

    Some researchers think that indigestion or wind may play a significant role

Other researchers believe that babies with colic may, for a few weeks while their gut is maturing, be sensitive to certain substances that are found in breast or formula milk.  Another theory suggests that some babies may be more emotionally sensitive than others, and have problems "turning off" their crying response.  It is believed that women who smoke during pregnancy could double their chances of having a baby who develops colic

Does my colicky baby have CMA?

     If you think that your colicky baby might have cow’s milk allergy, make an appointment to see your doctor and discuss your concerns.

     If your baby has cow’s milk allergy, they might show other symptoms besides colic such as eczema, vomiting and diarrhoea. Take a look at the symptoms page for more information on what signs of cow’s milk allergy to look out for.

“I was relieved to find out what was wrong with my baby”

     Mum of a child with CMA1

     To find out if cow’s milk allergy is causing your baby’s colic and other symptoms, your doctor may carry out some allergy tests including advice to put your baby on an elimination diet followed by a food challenge.

    What can I do if my baby has colic?

    Having a baby who’s in tears all the time can be exhausting, and often worrying as a parent. But it’s important to remember that colic doesn’t mean you’re doing something wrong or that your baby’s rejecting you. Speak to your doctor, who can find out if there’s an underlying reason causing the colic. Your doctor can also provide advice on how to soothe your little one. Every baby reacts differently, so you might find that some things work better than others. Here are a few suggestions to try:

      Hold your baby in different positions – try carrying your baby in an infant sling or front carrier on your chest as you walk around, as the body contact and motion can be calming. To ease any wind, try laying your baby tummy-down across your knees while gently rubbing their back.

      Play calming sounds – recreate the soothing womb environment with soft music, a fan, or a sound recording of a heartbeat. Use gentle, rhythmic motions – steady movements are soothing. Cradle your baby while rocking in a chair, or try a vibrating infant seat.

      Massage your baby’s skin – babies love skin-to-skin contact, and you might find that regularly massaging your baby makes them less irritable and reduces their crying. Ask your healthcare professional for more information on infant massage. Hypoallergenic formula – if your baby is bottle-fed, your doctor may recommend an extensively hydrolysed formula designed for babies with cow’s milk allergy to reduce colic symptoms. In this type of formula, cow’s milk proteins have been broken down allowing your baby to digest the milk proteins more easily. Guidelines for managing colic recommend the use of an extensively hydrolysed formula.

       Speak to your doctor about possible food allergies that may be causing your baby’s colic, and whether you should try eliminating potential allergy-causing foods that contain cow’s milk protein. You should only make changes to your baby’s diet under the supervision of your doctor or a specialist.   Which foods contain cow’s milk protein?

      And remember to give yourself a break! Looking after a baby with colic can be exhausting so it’s important that you look after your own wellbeing too, so don’t be afraid to ask for help from family members or friends when you start to feel overwhelmed.

     As well as colic, cow’s milk allergy is sometimes confused with lactose intolerance. Find out the difference between cow's milk allergy and lactose intolerance.

 

 

 

      

         2.8. Donkey’s Milk.  Donkey Milk Benefits

     Always known but forgotten for a while, donkey milk reappears as the star of cosmetics and promises great benefits and fantastic results.  Donkey Milk (or asses's Milk) is the closest mammal milk to human milk in biochemical composition.  It contains Cassein, Albumin, Fat, Lactose, Salt and Water.  Very rich in vitamins  (A, B1, B2, B6, D, C and E:  Its very high vitamin C content it also slows down the ageing process), minerals and trace elements (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, iron, zinc), biostimulines (immunoglobulins) and Glycerol alkyl.  Thanks to its rich composition, it is an excellent moisturizer which is very effective as an anti-age treatment.and essential fatty acids it contains anti-ageing, regenerative and healing properties.                                                                                                     A little bit of history.    The most famous of the great days of yore who regularly bathed in donkey’s milk is certainly Cleopatra, queen of Egypt to maintain its beauty. The legend says that there should be no less than 700 donkeys to provide the quantity of milk needed for daily baths.

      The donkey milk was used until the early twentieth century as a substitute for milk. More recently, studies show that donkey milk could serve as an alternative to cow’s milk for children with milk protein allergy.

     The milk production

      Milk production of donkey is very rare in Europe and the Americas.  The reason is simple:  This enterprise requires a farming know-how and enough binding.  Milking of the animal is done by hand, six times a day, in the presence of their foal — otherwise, failure of milk — and all this for about two liters of this precious day, against thirty per cow.

     In the past few years, a few donkey milk famrs have been created, solely for the purpose of producing enough of this precious liquid to supply the needs of babies' nutrition products (donkey milk is he best alternative for lactose intolerant infants) AND cosmetic use.  One of the most important donkey milk farms established within the last 12 years  is name, simply, Donkey Milk Farm.  It is located in the central part of Chile, in South America, where geographical and weather conditions are exceptional for this type of venture.

     Great cosmetic virtues.  Sensitive skin, who have an allergic reaction to many care more easily tolerate cream with donkey milk.  The milk of donkeys is regenerative for the skin because of high levels of protein, phospholipides and ceramides, which in turn confer it with both soothing and restructuring properties.  The product possesses a verified anti-wrinkle effect, eliminates wrinkles and prevents these from appearing product of the passing of time in the skin, face and neck. On the other hand, it eliminates and reduces the signs of expression.   Donkey Milk Facial Cream is also powerful tensor and hidratator of the skin.

      Mr Georgiadis mostly supplies the milk in 150 ml bottles that sell for €6. He recommends drinking just 60 ml a day, which costs a bit less than a pint of beer. I try a sample. It’s reassuringly odourless and looks and tastes like skimmed cow’s milk, although a tad sweeter. Like humans, donkeys have a single stomach: their “monogastric” digestive systems mean their milk is very different to that of other multi-stomached ruminants such as cows, whose milk contains a high bacterial load.     British aficionados can buy donkey milk products such as soaps, moisturisers and creams online.  These come mainly from a French company supplied by a Swiss-Italian firm that also produces powdered donkey milk formula for babies and children allergic to cow and soy milks. Back home I lather on the donkey milk soap. The itchiness under my beard disappears within an hour. Three weeks on there’s no recurrence. The soap seems to help my brother’s eczema, too. It benefits may not be proven clinically, but I’m a convert and I’ll definitely be washing down the pudding this Christmas with a few shots of donkey milk liqueur. It tastes just like Baileys. Donkey milk: Ancient elixir of life experiences modern-day resurgence

      Donkey milk was hailed by the ancients as an elixir of long life, a cure-all for a variety of ailments, and a powerful tonic capable of rejuvenating the skin. Cleopatra, Queen of Ancient Egypt, reportedly bathed in donkey milk every day to preserve her beauty and youthful looks, while ancient Greek physician Hippocrates wrote of its incredible medicinal properties. Now it seems that interest in donkey milk is experiencing a renewed interest after Pope Francis reported thriving on it as a baby, and remarkable results are being reported in people with psoriasis, eczema, and asthma.

     Donkey milk preserves beauty and youth?   Legend has it that Cleopatra (60 – 39 BC), the last active Pharaoh of Egypt, insisted on a daily bath in the milk of a donkey (ass) to preserve the beauty and youth of her skin and that 700 asses were need to provide the quantity needed. It was believed that donkey milk renders the skin more delicate, preserves its whiteness, and erases facial wrinkles.

     According to ancient historian Pliny the Elder, Poppaea Sabina (30 – 65 AD), the wife of Roman Emperor Nero, was also an advocate of ass milk and would have whole troops of donkeys accompany her on journeys so that she too could bathe in the milk.  Napoleon’s sister, Pauline Bonaparte (1780–1825 AD), was also reported to have used ass milk for her skin’s health care.

Donkey milk as a cure-all

      Greek physician Hippocrates (460 – 370 BC) was the first to write of the medicinal virtues of donkey milk, and prescribed it as a cure a diverse range of ailments, including liver problems, infectious diseases, fevers, nose bleeds, poisoning, joint pains, and wounds.

      Roman historian Pliny the Elder (23 – 79 AD) also wrote extensively about its health benefits. In his encyclopedic work Naturalis Historia, volume 28, dealing with remedies derived from animals, Pliny added fatigue, eye stains, weakened teeth, face wrinkles, ulcerations, asthma and certain gynecological troubles to the list of afflictions it could treat:

      Asses' milk, in cases where gypsum, white-lead, sulphur, or quick-silver, have been taken internally. This last is good too for constipation attendant upon fever, and is remarkably useful as a gargle for ulcerations of the throat. It is taken, also, internally, by patients suffering from atrophy, for the purpose of recruiting their exhausted strength; as also in cases of fever unattended with head-ache. The ancients held it as one of their grand secrets, to administer to children, before taking food, a semisextarius of asses' milk.

     Over the centuries, donkey’s milk continued to be recognized for its medicinal properties. In the 1800s, donkeys were used at a hospital for assisted children in Paris to aid in the recovery of children with congenital or contagious diseases.  The Popular Science Monthly, Volume 22, writes:

      The infants were at first fed with goat's milk, but it was soon found that ass's milk was better for them; and they are now all fed with milk which they draw directly from the teat of the animal. One, two, and sometimes three children are presented to the ass at the same time, being held at the teat in the arms of the nurse, and the operation is performed with wonderful ease. Numbers speak most eloquently of the success of the method. During six months, eighty-six children afflicted with congenital and contagious diseases were fed at the nursery. The first six were fed, by stress of particular circumstances, with cow's milk from the bottle; only one of them recovered. Forty-two were nursed at the teat of the goat; eight recovered, thirty-four died. Thirty-eight were nursed at the teat of the ass; twenty-eight recovered, ten died. In the face of such results there can be hardly any h esitation in declaring that in.   

III.              Conclusion.

3.1.  To know about the milk is an impotant for unhealthy people.

     Milk is an important part of our diet. We begin drinking it when we are young, but our intake decreases as we get older. Some people shy away from it because they fear that it will add too much fat to their diet. Others leave it out because they believe that they no longer need it. You are never too old to reap the rewards of drinking milk. It is a great source of vitamins and nutrients, and it has several health benefits, such as:

       1. Glowing Skin

Cleopatra took milk baths to help her skin stay soft, supple and glowing. You can do the same, or you can drink a few glasses of whole milk each day to get its benefits. Milk has several nutrients which help skin look its best. It has lactic acid which can act as an exfoliant and enzymes to help smooth skin. It also has amino acids that help keep skin moisturized. Milk can help prevent damage from environmental toxins because it has antioxidants. However, if you have a sensitivity to milk or dairy products, milk can actually aggravate your skin.

    2. Healthy Bones and Teeth

Milk is a great source of calcium, which is essential for healthy bones. Not only do young children need it while their bones are growing, but adults need it to keep their bones strong and to prevent osteoporosis. Milk is also great for strong teeth, and it helps prevent tooth decay and cavities. In order for the calcium to be absorbed by the body, vitamin D must be present. If you have a vitamin D deficiency, buy milk that is fortified with extra vitamin D to ensure that your body absorbs the calcium.

     3. Muscles

Milk contains protein, which helps to rebuild muscles. Drink a glass of milk after you exercise to give your body what it needs to recover. It will help to keep soreness at bay while replenishing fluids that you lost during your workout.

    4. Weight Loss

Studies show that women who drink low-fat or skim milk lose more weight than those who exclude milk from their diet. It is a great appetizer and it makes a healthy snack. Add a glass to your dinner, or drink a glass while eating a piece of fruit.

5. Less Stress.

Milk is a great way to de-stress at the end of the day. A glass of warm milk will help to relax tense muscles and soothe frayed nerves. Milk has also been proven to reduce symptoms of PMS and boost energy. The next time you are feeling frazzled, try drinking a glass of milk while you soak in a bubble bath.

    6. Healthy Body

Milk has properties that lower high blood pressure and risk of strokes. It reduces the liver’s production of cholesterol, and it can act as an antacid. Vitamins A and B in milk can help build good eyesight. Milk has also been show to help lower risk of certain cancers.

There are several varieties of milk on the market, such as whole, 2%, low-fat and fat free. If you are concerned about the growth hormones used in milk, choose to go the organic route.  With all of the types of milk available, you should be able to find something that fits your diet and nutritional needs.

       3.2. Our town’s Milk Factory is the best factory in our country.

There is the big Milk factory in our City. It is a very big and clean. There are many workers are working there. There are many milk products are there. This factory is producting fresh milk, airan, kefir, kaimak, irimshik and others. City peoples are very happy because they buy it.  That’s why  I like to know much about the milk and their products.

                v. My suggestion.  ( Менің ұсынысым)

1.  Біздің ағылшын тілі оқулықтарымызда «Сүт және сүт өнімдері тұралы еш мағлумат жоқ». Ана сүті және жануарлар сүті оның пайдасы тұралы тақырыптар берілсе ағылшын тілінде.

2.   Жаңа айтып өткеніміздей, бізге таңсық болған есек сүті қол жетімді бағамен біздің дәріханаларымызда, дүкендерімізде қол жетімді бағамен сөрелерімізде турса; себебі есектің өзі жабайы жануар болғанмен оның сүті көптеген сырқаттарға емдік қасиетінің бар екенін үйрендік.

       Мысалы кәзіргі таңда біздің сәбилерімізде эпилепсия  (қояншық ) аурулары көбейіп кетті. Және де қант диабетіне шалдыққан, асма ауруларына шалдыққан тұлғаларымыз өте көп, осындай сырқаттардың бірде бір емі есектің таза суті екенін профессорларымыз дәлелдеді.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VI.              The List of Literature.

 

1. «Жануарлар тұралы ғылым», Ю. Одум. С. Павлов.

2.« Жануарлар» оқу құралы А. Досмұхаммедов.

3.Республикалық ғылыми әдістемелік педагогикалық жұрнал «Ағылшын тілі мектепте» 2009-2010жж.

4.Ғаламтор.

5.«New’s” газеті.

6. Үш тілдегі газет жұрналдар.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

                               Summary

        

 Nurkhozha Nurai and Izturgan Aktolkin are studing 7«Ә»form, at school №11. They were writing scientific essay working, about the Milk and their products.

       I think that they learn much about the milk is the useful of our Health and their dander.

      They wrote and know about the most important for children is Mother’s Milk. At first time all little children must drink their Mother’s Milk. The second is an important the Goat’s Milk.

     An Europian Country and America regularly drink the Camel’s Milk and Camel’s Shubat.

     Every Kazakh people must drink the Camels Shubat.

They wrote and reseach  the Horses Milk and Horses Kymyz.

They know much about the Donkey’s Milk.  Donkey’s milk is a very important for Unhealthy  Ill People.  When they reseach about the Donkey’s Milk that its used at all cream of Body Cream, Hand cream, face Cream and others.

    I think that this science work or this theme is clear for all students.

  

 

Scientific Leaders:                       Sabitaeva Bibigul

                                                        Sandibaeva Sagira

Осыған ұқсас жазбалар:

ҰстаздарғаҚазақ мақал-мәтелдерінің астарлы сыры. Ғылыми жоба

БастауышАсқабақтың емдік қасиеті

Ғылыми жобаларАхмет — қазақ тіл білімінің негізін қалаушы (ғылыми жоба)

Бастауыш“Киік – киелі аң”

БастауышИтмұрын өсімдігінің емдік қасиеттері (ғылыми жоба)

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